AGC of a multi sources power system with natural choice of power plants
This paper presents an application of optimal control theory in multi sources power system by considering natural choice of power plants participating in automatic generation control (AGC) scheme. However, for successful operation of large power system, the natural choices of generation suitable for AGC system are hydro and thermal power plants since gas and nuclear power plants are rarely participates in the AGC scheme. Therefore, this work presents design and implementation of proportional integral (PI) structured optimal AGC controller in the presence of hydro and thermal power plants by using state vector feedback control theory. Moreover, various case studies are identified to obtain: (i) Cost aspects of physical realization of optimal AGC controller, (ii) Closed loop system stability margin through patterns of eigenvalues and (iii) System dynamic performance. Further, results have shown that when optimal AGC scheme is implemented in power system, the dynamic performance of power system is outstanding over those obtained with genetic algorithms (GAs) tuned PI structured AGC controller. Besides, with optimal AGC controller, cheaper cost of control structure, increased in system closed loop stability margin and outstanding dynamic performance of power system have been found when lessening in hydro generationÂ is replaced by generation from thermal power plants for various case studies under investigation.
O.I. Elgerd and C.E. Fosha, Optimum megawatt-frequency control of multi-area electric energy systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-89, no. 4, pp. 556-563, 1970.
C.E. Fosha and O. I. Elgerd, The megawatt frequency control problem: A new approach via optimal control theory, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-89, no. 4, pp. 563-577, 1970.
P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill: New York, USA, 1994.
Ibraheem, P. Kumar and D.P. Kothari, Recent philosophies of automatic generation control strategies in power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 346-357, 2005.
P. Kumar and Ibraheem, AGC strategies: a comprehensive review, Int. Journal of Power and Energy Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 371-376, 1996.
Ibraheem, P. Kumar and S. Khatoon, Overview of power system operational and control philosophies, International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 2006.
S.K. Pandey, S.R. Mohanty and N. Kishor, A literature survey on load frequency control for conventional and distribution generation power systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviwes, no. 25, pp. 318â€“334, 2013.
A.M. Kassem, Neural predictive controller of a two-area load frequency control for interconnected power system, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 49â€“58, 2010.
F. Beaufays, Y. Abdel-Magid and B. Widrow, Application of neural networks to load-frequency control in power systems, Journal of Neural Network, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 183-194, 1994.
A. Demiroren, N.S. Sengor and H.L. Zeynelgil, Automatic generation control by using ANN technique, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 883-896, 2001.
Y. Oysal, A.S. Yilmaz and E. Koklukaya, Dynamic fuzzy networks based load frequency controller design in electrical power systems, Gazi University Journal of Science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 101-114, 2004.
E. Cam, Application of fuzzy logic for load frequency control of hydro electrical power plants, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1281-1288, 2007.
Y. Oguz, Fuzzy PI Control with Parallel Fuzzy PD Control for Automatic Generation Control of a Two-Area Power Systems, Gazi University Journal of Science, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 805-816, 2011.
Y. Arya, N. Kumar and S. K. Sinha, Fuzzy logic based load frequency control of multi-area electrical power system considering non-linearities and boiler dynamics, Int. Energy Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 97-111, 2012.
Y. Arya and N. Kumar, Fuzzy gain scheduling controllers for AGC of two-area interconnected electrical power systems, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 737â€“751, 2016.
Y.L. Abdel-Magid and M.M. Dawoud, Optimal AGC tuning with genetic algorithms, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 231-238, 1996.
Z.M. Al-Hamouz and H.N. Al-Duwaish, A new load frequency variable structure controller using genetic algorithms, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2000.
A. Abdennour, Adaptive optimal gain scheduling for the load frequency control problem, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 45-56, 2002.
D. Rerkpreedapong, A. Hasanovic, and A. Feliachi, Robust load frequency control using genetic algorithms and linear matrix inequalities, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 855-861, 2003.
K.S.S. Ramakrishna and T.S. Bhatti, Sampled-data automatic load frequency control of a single area power system with multi-source power generation, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 955-980, 2007.
K.S.S. Ramakrishna and T.S. Bhatti, Discrete data load frequency control of two-area power system with multi-source power, Int. Energy Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 145-154, 2008.
K.S.S. Ramakrishna, P. Sharma and T.S. Bhatti, Automatic generation control of interconnected power system with diverse sources of power generation, Int. Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 51-65, 2010.
K.S.S. Ramakrishna and T.S. Bhatti, Automatic generation control of single area power system with multi-source power generation, Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, vol. 222, pp. 1-11, 2008.
A.M. Jadhav and K. Vadirajacharya, Performance verification of PID controller in an interconnected power system using particle swarm optimization, Energy Procedia, vol. 14, pp. 2075-2080, 2012.
H. Gozde and M.C. Taplamacioglu, Automatic generation control application with craziness based particle swarm optimization in a thermal power system, Int. Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 8-16, 2011.
N. Pathak, A. Verma, T.S. Bhatti and I. Nasiruddin, Modeling of HVDC tie-links and their utilization in AGC/LFC operations of multi-area power systems, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, (Early Access), 2018.
S.M. Abd-Elazim and E.S. Ali, Load frequency controller design via BAT algorithm for nonlinear interconnected power system, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 77, pp. 166-177, 2016.
N. Hasan, Ibraheem and S. Farooq, Parameter optimization of automatic generation controller for interconnected power systems using BAT algorithm, Proc. National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.
E.S. Ali and S.M. Abd-Elazim, Bacteria foraging optimization algorithm based load frequency controller for interconnected power system, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 633-638, 2011.
E.S. Ali and S.M. Abd-Elazim, BFOA based design of PID controller for two area load frequency control with nonlinearities, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 51, pp. 224-231, 2013.
I. Nasiruddin, T.S. Bhatti and N. Hakimuddin, Automatic generation control in an interconnected power system incorporating diverse source power plants using bacteria foraging optimization technique, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 189-199, 2015.
H. Gozde, M.C. TaplamacÄ±oÄŸlu, I. Kocaarslan, Comparative performance analysis of artificial bee colony algorithm in automatic generation control for interconnected reheat thermal power system, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 167-178, 2012.
S.J. Safi, S.S. Tezcan, I. Eke and Z. Farhad, Gravitational search algorithm (GSA) based pid controller design for two area multi-source power system load frequency control (LFC), Gazi University Journal of Science, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 139-153, 2018.
R.K. Sahu, S. Panda and S. Padhan, Optimal gravitational search algorithm for automatic generation control of interconnected power systems, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 721-733, 2014.
P. Dahiya, P. Mukhija, A. R. Saxena, and Y. Arya, Comparative performance investigation of optimal controller for AGC of electric power generating systems, Automatika-Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 902â€“921, 2016.
Y. Arya and N. Kumar, Optimal AGC with redox flow batteries in multi-area restructured power systems, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1145â€“1159, 2016.
Y. Arya, N. Kumar and Ibraheem, AGC of a two-area multi-source power system interconnected via AC/DC parallel links under restructured power environment, Optimal Control Applications & Methods, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 590â€“607, 2016.
P. Kumar and Ibraheem, Dynamic performance evaluation of 2-area interconnected power systems: A comparative study, Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), vol. 78, pp. 199-208, 1998.
Ibraheem and P. Kumar, A novel approach to the matrix Riccati equation solution: An application to optimal control of interconnected power systems, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 33â€“52, Jan. 2004.
Ibraheem and P. Kumar, Current status of the Indian power system and dynamic performance enhancement of hydro-power systems with asynchronous tie-lines, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 605-626, 2003.
Ibraheem, P. Kumar and S. Ahmad, Dynamic performance enhancement of hydro-power systems with asynchronous tie-lines, Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), vol. 85, no. EL-1, pp. 23-34, 2004.
Ibraheem and P. Kumar, Study of dynamic performance of power systems with asynchronous tie-lines considering parameter uncertainties, Journal of Institution of Engineers (India), vol. 85, no. EL-1, pp. 35-42, 2004.
Ibraheem, Nizamuddin and T.S. Bhatti, AGC of two area power system interconnected by AC/DC links with diverse sources in each area, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 55, pp. 297-304, 2014.
Y. Arya and N. Kumar, Optimal control strategy-based AGC of electrical power systems: A comparative performance analysis, Optimal Control Applications & Methods, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 982-992, 2017.
Y. Arya, N. Kumar and S.K. Gupta, Optimal automatic generation control of two-area power systems with energy storage units under deregulated environment, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1-20, 2017.
I. Nasiruddin and S.B. Altamini, Effect of wind energy participation in AGC of interconnected multisource power systems, Journal of Electrical & Electronics Systems, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-6, 2016.
M.R. Djalal, M.Y. Yunus, A. Imran and H. Setiadi, Capacity energy storage (CES) optimization for load frequency control in micro hydro power plant using imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA), EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 279-297, 2017.
Copyright (c) 2019 EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright to this article is transferred to Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya(PENS) if and when the article is accepted for publication. The undersigned hereby transfers any and all rights in and to the paper including without limitation all copyrights to PENS. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. The copyright transfer form can be downloaded here .
The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. This agreement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who have obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable. After submission of this agreement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted.
Plagiarism screening will be conducted by EMITTER Journal Editorial Board using iThenticate Plagiarism Checker and CrossCheck plagiarism screening service. Author should download and signing declaration of plagiarism form here and resubmit it with copyright transfer form via online submission.