Low Power, Area Efficient Architecture for Successive Cancellation Decoder
Polar codes have recently emerged as an error-correcting code and have become popular owing to their capacity-achieving nature. Polar code based communication system primarily consists of two parts, including Polar Encoder and Decoder. Successive Cancellation Decoder is one of the methods used in the decoding process. The Successive Cancellation Decoder is a recursive structure built with the building block called Processing Element. This article proposes a low power, area-efficient architecture for the Successive Cancellation Decoder for polar codes. Successive Cancellation Decoder with code length 1024 and code rate 0.5 was designed in Verilog HDL and implemented using 45-nm CMOS technology. The proposed work focuses on developing an area-efficient Successive Cancellation Decoder architecture by presenting a new Processing Element architecture. The proposed architecture has produced about 35% lesser area with a 12% reduced gate count. Moreover, power is also reduced by 50%. A substantial reduction in the latency and improvement in the Technology Scaled Normalized Throughput value was observed.
E. Arikan, Channel Polarization: A Method for Constructing Capacity-Achieving Codes for Symmetric Binary-Input Memoryless Channels, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 3051–3073, Jul. 2009.
B. Yuan and K. K. Parhi, Low-Latency Successive-Cancellation Polar Decoder Architectures Using 2-Bit Decoding, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1241–1254, Apr. 2014.
C. Zhang and K. K. Parhi, Latency Analysis and Architecture Design of Simplified SC Polar Decoders, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 115–119, Feb. 2014.
C. Kim, H. Yun, S. Ajaz, and H. Lee, High-Throughput Low-Complexity Successive-Cancellation Polar Decoder Architecture using One’s Complement Scheme, Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 427–435, Jun. 2015.
C. Leroux, A. Raymond, G. Sarkis, I. Tal, A. Vardy, and W. Gross, Hardware Implementation of Successive Cancellation Decoders for Polar Codes, Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol. 69, Nov. 2011.
C. Leroux, A. J. Raymond, G. Sarkis, and W. J. Gross, A Semi-Parallel Successive-Cancellation Decoder for Polar Codes, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 289–299, Jan. 2013.
A. Mishra et al., A successive cancellation decoder ASIC for a 1024-bit polar code in 180nm CMOS, in 2012 IEEE Asian Solid State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC), Nov. 2012, pp. 205–208.
C. Zhang and K. K. Parhi, Low-Latency Sequential and Overlapped Architectures for Successive Cancellation Polar Decoder, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 2429–2441, May 2013.
G. Sathees Babu, L. R. Madala, L. Gopalakrishnan, and M. Sellathurai, Low-complex processing element architecture for successive cancellation decoder, Integration, vol. 66, pp. 80–87, May 2019.
H. Vangala, E. Viterbo, and Y. Hong, A new multiple folded successive cancellation decoder for polar codes, in 2014 IEEE Information Theory Workshop (ITW 2014), Nov. 2014, pp. 381–385.
S. Kahraman, E. Viterbo, and M. E. Çelebi, Multiple Folding for Successive Cancelation Decoding of Polar Codes, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 545–548, Oct. 2014.
M. Bohr, A 30 Year Retrospective on Dennard’s MOSFET Scaling Paper, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society Newsletter, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 11–13, 2007.
S. J. Roy, G. Lakshminarayanan, and S.-B. Ko, High Speed Architecture for Successive Cancellation Decoder with Split-g Node Block, IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, pp. 1–1, 2020, doi: 10.1109/LES.2020.3021144.
C. Zhang, J. Yang, X. You, and S. Xu, Pipelined implementations of polar encoder and feed-back part for SC polar decoder, in 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), May 2015, pp. 3032–3035.
D. Le, X. Wu, and X. Niu, Decoding schedule generating method for successive-cancellation decoder of polar codes, IET Communications, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 462–467, 2016.
C. Gao, R. Liu, B. Dai, and X. Han, Path Splitting Selecting Strategy-Aided Successive Cancellation List Algorithm for Polar Codes, IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 422–425, Mar. 2019.
S. A. Hashemi, C. Condo, F. Ercan, and W. J. Gross, Memory-Efficient Polar Decoders, IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 604–615, Dec. 2017.
C. Leroux, I. Tal, A. Vardy, and W. J. Gross, Hardware architectures for successive cancellation decoding of polar codes, in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), May 2011, pp. 1665–1668.
P. Shi, W. Tang, S. Zhao, and B. Wang, Performance of polar codes on wireless communication channels, in 2012 IEEE 14th International Conference on Communication Technology, Nov. 2012, pp. 1134–1138.
B. Li, D. Tse, K. Chen, and H. Shen, Capacity-achieving rateless polar codes, in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Jul. 2016, pp. 46–50.
S.-N. Hong, D. Hui, and I. Marić, Capacity-Achieving Rate-Compatible Polar Codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 7620–7632, Dec. 2017.
J.-H. Po, S.-J. Chen, and C. Yu, Variable code length soft-output decoder of polar codes, in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP), Jul. 2015, pp. 655–658.
H. Hsu, A.-Y. Wu, and J.-C. Yeo, Area-Efficient VLSI Design of Reed–Solomon Decoder for 10GBase-LX4 Optical Communication Systems, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1245–1249, Nov. 2006.
B. Feng, Q. Zhang, and J. Jiao, An Efficient Rateless Scheme Based on the Extendibility of Systematic Polar Codes, IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 23223–23232, 2017.
J. Kim and J. Lee, Polar codes for non-identically distributed channels, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2016, no. 1, p. 287, Dec. 2016.
Briantoro H, Astawa IGP, Sudarsono A, An Implementation of Error Minimization Data Transmission in OFDM using Modified Convolutional Code, EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, 43–59, 2015.
Copyright (c) 2022 EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright to this article is transferred to Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya(PENS) if and when the article is accepted for publication. The undersigned hereby transfers any and all rights in and to the paper including without limitation all copyrights to PENS. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. The copyright transfer form can be downloaded here .
The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. This agreement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who have obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable. After submission of this agreement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions
- Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the Work.
- Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the work or derivative works for the author’s personal use or company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice of Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya (PENS) publisher are indicated.
- Authors are allowed to use and reuse their articles under the same CC-BY-NC-SA license as third parties.
- Third-parties are allowed to share and adapt the publication work for all non-commercial purposes and if they remix, transform, or build upon the material, they must distribute under the same license as the original.
Plagiarism screening will be conducted by EMITTER Journal Editorial Board using iThenticate Plagiarism Checker and CrossCheck plagiarism screening service. The author should download and sign the declaration of plagiarism form here and resubmit it with the copyright transfer form via online submission.
Ministry of Electronics and Information technology
Grant numbers VISPHDMEITY-1713
Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India
Grant numbers DST/ETI-324/2012