Sustainable and Resilient Smart Water Grids: A Solution for Developing Countries

  • Khurram Shehzad Khattak University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar
  • Muhammad Jawwad UET Peshawar
  • Zawar H. Khan University of Victoria
  • T. Aron Gulliver University of Victoria
  • Akhtar Nawaz Khan UET Peshawar
  • Mushtaq A. Khan UET Mardan
Keywords: Smart water grid, Internet of Things (IoT), tube well, Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Abstract

According to a United Nations report, the world population will increase from 7 billion to 9 billion by 2050. Further, the water stress level is more than 70% in 22 countries while in another 31 countries it is between 25% and 70%. More than 2 billion people live in these 53 countries which are all underdeveloped. Water use has increased by 1% per year since the 1980s, so global demand is expected to rise by 30% by 2050. Thus, efficient water grid management is imperative to ensure there is sufficient water for the future. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be used to create smart water grids to optimize water distribution, reduce waste and leakage, and resolve quality and overuse issues. In this work, a low cost, real-time, reliable and sustainable IoT based solution called SmartTubewell is proposed for smart water grid management. It is composed of two components, a sensor node installed at tube wells and an application layer on Amazon Web Services (AWS) for data analysis, storage and processing. The sensor node is based on a Raspberry Pi with integrated current and voltage sensors and a local database. The sensor data is transmitted to AWS using a cellular (GPRS) network. A comparison between the proposed system and SCADA is presented which shows that SmartTubewell has a much lower cost. A field test with multiple tube wells in Peshawar, Pakistan indicates that this is a suitable solution for developing countries.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Safdar, Sabeeh, Mujahid Mohsin, Liaqat Ali Khan, and Waseem Iqbal. Leveraging the internet of things for smart waters: Motivation, enabling technologies and deployment strategies for Pakistan. In IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing, Advanced & Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing & Communications, Cloud & Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation, pp. 2117-2124. 2018.

Mahessar, A. A., A. L. Qureshi, N. A. Memon, S. Qureshi, and I. A. Bohio. "Impact assessment of effluent from Kotri industrial site area on environment. Science International (Lahore) 28, no. 4 (2016): 3535-3540.

Bellavista, Paolo, Giuseppe Cardone, Antonio Corradi, and Luca Foschini. Convergence of MANET and WSN in IoT urban scenarios. IEEE Sensors Journal 13, no. 10 (2013): 3558-3567.

Hussain, Sayed Shahid, Khurram S. Khattak, Ali Khan, and Zawar H. Khan. Cyber physical system for solar energy monitoring. In IEEE International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology, pp. 185-1855. 2019.

Khan, Nauman, Khurram S. Khattak, Shaukat Ullah, and Zawar Khan, A low-cost IoT based system for environmental monitoring. In IEEE International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology, pp. 173-1735. 2019.

Malik, Haroon, Khurram S. Khattak, Tousiq Wiqar, Zawar H. Khan, and Ahmed B. Altamimi. "Low cost internet of things platform for structural health monitoring. In IEEE International Multitopic Conference. 2019.

Sohail, Anwar Mehmood, Khurram S. Khattak, Adil Iqbal, Zawar H. Khan, and Aakash Ahmad. Cloud-based detection of road bottlenecks using OBD-II telematics, IEEE International Multitopic Conference, 2019.

UNESCO, Leaving no one behind, The United Nations World Water Development Report, 2019.

Urban Policy Unit Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Planning and engineering services for master plan in Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa drinking water, sanitation/storm water and solid waste services, 2020.

Khan, Attaullah, and Muhammad Ali, Impact of built environment on groundwater depletion in Peshawar, Pakistan, Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 52, no. 1 (2019): 86.

Ministry of Water Resources Government of Pakistan, National water policy. 2018.

Gupta, Aditya, Sudhir Mishra, Neeraj Bokde, and Kishore Kulat, Need of smart water systems in India, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 11, no. 4 (2016): 2216-2223.

Mutchek, Michele, and Eric Williams, Moving towards sustainable and resilient smart water grids, Challenges 5, no. 1 (2014): 123-137.

Kulkarni, Parag, and Tim Farnham, Smart city wireless connectivity considerations and cost analysis: Lessons learnt from smart water case studies, IEEE Access 4 (2016): 660-672.

Inductive Automation, Ignition: The new SCADA, Date: 2020, January 3, 2018 [Online] Available: https://inductiveautomation.com/scada-software/.

Raspberry Pi Foundation, Raspberry Pi 3B, Date: 2020, January, 3 [Online] Available: https://www.raspberrypi.org/.

Amazon, Amazon web services, Date: 2020 January 18; [Online] Available: https://aws.amazon.com/.

Published
2021-06-16
How to Cite
Khattak, K. S., Jawwad, M., H. Khan, Z., Gulliver, T. A., Khan, A. N., & Khan, M. A. (2021). Sustainable and Resilient Smart Water Grids: A Solution for Developing Countries. EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology, 9(1), 204-219. https://doi.org/10.24003/emitter.v9i1.595
Section
Articles