An Empirical Research on Pilgrims Wayfinding Satisfaction Study: A Consideration for Improving Wayfinding Experience in Al Masjid Al Haram
Millions of Muslims visit Makkah Al-Mukarramah every year for Hajj and Umrah. It is a mandatory part of both Hajj and Umrah rituals to visit Al Masjid Al Haram for various activities. Huge crowds and lack of prominent wayfinding signs make Hajis spend more time inside Haram trying to find their way that too in a tense and panicky state of mind. This paper aims at assessing the gravity of wayfinding associated challenges faced by Hajis by applying the well-known Customer Satisfaction Model and proposing possible solutions to minimize potential adverse effects. Convenience sampling was used to collect the data from the proposed sample size of 2000 from various nationalities and regions. A total of 618 responses were received. The structural equation modeling (SEM) method was used for path analysis using AMOS 21 analytical tool and results revealed a reasonable fit between data collected and the model used: chi2 (485.95), chi2 / DF (3.77), RMSEA (0.07), CFI (0.92), and all values of Cronbach's alpha are greater than 0.78. The results substantiated that Hajis face problems in wayfinding inside Haram, which leads to Hajis finding it challenging to navigate in the Haram area. When the respondents were presented with alternative solutions to improve their wayfinding inside Haram, the results showed a statistically significant improvement in the satisfaction level.
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