Tracking and Formation Control of Leader-Follower Cooperative Mobile Robots Based on Trilateration Data

  • Endah Suryawati Ningrum Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya
  • Rizky Yuniar Hakkun Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya
  • Ali Husein Alasiry Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya


This research deals with formation control of swarm robot based on changing of robot’s relative positional data. A follow the leader movement with simple triangle formation case is applied with three robots; a leader with two followers. Trilateration method is used as a method of determining the position of the leader robot from the follower robots using the distance to the reference point (local positioning). Follower robots are designed to follow every movement of the leader on a formation position. The controller is designed to maintain the formation position of the follower robots relatively to the leader. As a uniqueness, a relative positional control method by using bearing angle and distance error is proposed instead of the common Cartesian positional error control. From the experiment which conducted in maximum distance between the robots,it was obtained a maximum error approximately 56%. The follower robots are able to follow any changes in motion of the robot leader with average distance error of 36%.

Keywords: Cooperative mobile robot, formation control, trilateration, follow the leader


Download data is not yet available.


Sergio Monteiro, and Estela Bicho, Robot Formations Robots Allocation and Leader-Follower Pair, Proceeding-IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2008.

P.M. Maxim, S. Hettiarachchi, W.M. Spears, Trilateration Localization For Multi-Robot Teams, University Of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming G2070, USA

W. Spears, J. Hamann., P.M. Maxim, T. Kunkel, R. Heil, D Zarzhitsky, D. Spears, C. Karlsson, Where are you?, In Sahin, E., Spears, W. : Swarm Robotics. Springer-Verlag, 2006

N. Bredeche, Y. Chevaleyre, The Robot Swarm Re-localization Problem, 5th IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBTO), 2008.

E.S.Ningrum, A.Setiawan, A.H. Alasiry, “Prototype of Cooperative Mobile Robots With Trilateration Localization Methodâ€, 1st IFSA International Conference, Surabaya, 2011

S. Ohyama, A.H.Alasiry., J. Takayama, A. Kobayashi, Determining 2D positions of sensor network nodes for temperature distribution measurement, Sensors and Actuators A Physical, 135(1):203-208, 2007

T. Balch, R.C. Arkin, Behaviour Based Formation Control for Multirobot Teams, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. XX, No. Y, Month 1999

How to Cite
Ningrum, E. S., Hakkun, R. Y., & Alasiry, A. H. (2016). Tracking and Formation Control of Leader-Follower Cooperative Mobile Robots Based on Trilateration Data. EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology, 3(2), 88-98.