Ambient Noise Characterization of Shallow Water Environment
Understanding of environmental characteristic is a key factor in design of communication system. This paper describes an ambientÂ noise characterization of measurement in the shallow water ofSurabaya bay. The result showed that probability density function (pdf) of ambient noise is close to a Gaussian distribution with the mean of -2.85x10-5 and deviation standard of 9.87x10-4. Validation has been done by using mean square error (MSE) and Bhattacharya distance. Fitting between cdf of measurement result and theory was done by using MSE with the value of and Kolmogorov Smirnov test with the value of 3.9x10-4 and 4.9x10-2 respectively. In the frequency domain analysis, it is showed that in the range of 0 ~ 9 kHz has a deceasing level from -100 until -140 dB. In the frequency of 9 ~ 13.5 kHz, the spectral is flat as like a white. It can be used as a reference in decision of range frequency of underwater acoustic communication systems that will be applied.
Keywords: ambient noise, statistical characteristics, underwater acoustic.
M. Stojanovic, â€œUnderwater Acoustic Communications: DesignConsiderations on the Physical Layerâ€, proceeding of Fifth Annual Conference on Wireless on Demand Network Systems and Services, 2008. WONS 2008.
M. Badiey, Y. Mu, J.A. Simmen, and S.E. Forsthe, â€œSignal Variability in Shallow-Water Sound Channelsâ€, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol.25, no.4, October 2000.
P. C. Etter, â€œAdvanced Applications for Underwater Acoustic Modelingâ€, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, Volume 2012, Article ID 214839.
Poikonen, and S. Madekivi, â€œRecent Hydro Acoustic Measurement and Studies in the Gulf of Finlandâ€, Proceedings of the International Conference â€œUnderwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies &Resultsâ€, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28th June - 1st, July 2005.
M. Ashokana, G. Latha, and R. Ramesh, â€œAnalysis of Shallow Water Ambient Noise Due to Rain and Derivation Rain Parametersâ€, Elsevier, Applied Acoustic, Vol. 88 (2015), pp: 114â€“122
S. Najeem, M.C. Sanjana, G. Latha, and P.E.Durai, â€œWind Induced Ambient Noise Modeling and Comparison with Field Measurements in Arabian Seaâ€, Elsevier, Applied Acoustics, Vol. 89 (2015), pp: 101â€“106.
S.S. Murugan,V. Natarajan, and R.R. Kumar, â€œNoise Model Analysis and Estimation of Effect due to Wind Driven Ambient Noise in Shallow Waterâ€, Hindawi Publishing Corp., International Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 2011, Article ID 950838.
M. M. Mahanthy, M. C. Sanjaya, G. Latha, and G. Raguraman, â€œAn Ivestigation on The Fluctuation and Variability of Ambient Noise in Shallow water of South West Bay of Bengalâ€, Indian Journal of Geo Marine Science, Vol.43 (5), Mat 2014, pp.747-753.
Arnab Das, â€œShallow Ambient Noise Variability due to Distant Shipping Noise and Tideâ€, Elsevier, Applied Acoustics, Vol. 72 (2011), pp: 660â€“664.
R.K. Shastri, Y.V. Joshi, and A. Das, â€œTime Frequency Analysis of Underwater Ambient Noise in Tropical Littoral Watersâ€, IEEE OCEANSan Diego, 23-27 September 2013.
J.R. Short, â€œHigh-Frequency Ambient Noise and Its Impact on Underwater Tracking Rangesâ€, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 2, April 2005.
G.B. Deane and M.J. Buckingham, â€œVertical Coherence of Ambient Noise in Shallow Water Overlying a Fluid Seabedâ€, J. Acoustic Society of America, December 1997, Vol.102, No. 6, pp: 3413-3424.
A.E. Isaev, Chen Yi, A.N. Mateev, and Ping Zihong, â€œCOONET.AUV.W-S1 supplementary comparison of free-field hydrophone calibration in the Frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHzâ€, Metrologia, Vol. 52, 2015, doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/52/1A/09001.
D. Tom Dakin, Jeff Bosma, John Dorocicz, and Nicolai Bailly, â€œCalibrating Low Frequency Digital Hydrophonesâ€, International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustics (UA2013), Corfu, Greece, 23-26 June, 2013.
S.H. Cha, â€œTaxonomy of Nominal Type Histogram Distance Measuresâ€, American Conference on applied Mathematics (Mathâ€™08), Harvard, Massachusetts, USA, March 24-26, 2008.
The copyright to this article is transferred to Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya(PENS) if and when the article is accepted for publication. The undersigned hereby transfers any and all rights in and to the paper including without limitation all copyrights to PENS. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. The copyright transfer form can be downloaded here .
The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. This agreement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who have obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable. After submission of this agreement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted.
Plagiarism screening will be conducted by EMITTER Journal Editorial Board using iThenticate Plagiarism Checker and CrossCheck plagiarism screening service. Author should download and signing declaration of plagiarism form here and resubmit it with copyright transfer form via online submission.