Ambient Noise Characterization of Shallow Water Environment

  • Tri Budi Santoso Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya


Understanding of environmental characteristic is a key factor in design of communication system. This paper describes an ambient  noise characterization of measurement in the shallow water ofSurabaya bay. The result showed that probability density function (pdf) of ambient noise is close to a Gaussian distribution with the mean of -2.85x10-5 and deviation standard of 9.87x10-4. Validation has been done by using mean square error (MSE) and Bhattacharya distance. Fitting between cdf of measurement result and theory was done by using MSE with the value of and Kolmogorov Smirnov test with the value of 3.9x10-4 and 4.9x10-2 respectively. In the frequency domain analysis, it is showed that in the range of 0 ~ 9 kHz has a deceasing level from -100 until -140 dB. In the frequency of 9 ~ 13.5 kHz, the spectral is flat as like a white. It can be used as a reference in decision of range frequency of underwater acoustic communication systems that will be applied.

Keywords: ambient noise, statistical characteristics, underwater acoustic.


Download data is not yet available.


M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications: DesignConsiderations on the Physical Layerâ€, proceeding of Fifth Annual Conference on Wireless on Demand Network Systems and Services, 2008. WONS 2008.

M. Badiey, Y. Mu, J.A. Simmen, and S.E. Forsthe, “Signal Variability in Shallow-Water Sound Channelsâ€, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol.25, no.4, October 2000.

P. C. Etter, “Advanced Applications for Underwater Acoustic Modelingâ€, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, Volume 2012, Article ID 214839.

Poikonen, and S. Madekivi, “Recent Hydro Acoustic Measurement and Studies in the Gulf of Finlandâ€, Proceedings of the International Conference “Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies &Resultsâ€, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28th June - 1st, July 2005.

M. Ashokana, G. Latha, and R. Ramesh, “Analysis of Shallow Water Ambient Noise Due to Rain and Derivation Rain Parametersâ€, Elsevier, Applied Acoustic, Vol. 88 (2015), pp: 114–122

S. Najeem, M.C. Sanjana, G. Latha, and P.E.Durai, “Wind Induced Ambient Noise Modeling and Comparison with Field Measurements in Arabian Seaâ€, Elsevier, Applied Acoustics, Vol. 89 (2015), pp: 101–106.

S.S. Murugan,V. Natarajan, and R.R. Kumar, “Noise Model Analysis and Estimation of Effect due to Wind Driven Ambient Noise in Shallow Waterâ€, Hindawi Publishing Corp., International Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 2011, Article ID 950838.

M. M. Mahanthy, M. C. Sanjaya, G. Latha, and G. Raguraman, “An Ivestigation on The Fluctuation and Variability of Ambient Noise in Shallow water of South West Bay of Bengalâ€, Indian Journal of Geo Marine Science, Vol.43 (5), Mat 2014, pp.747-753.

Arnab Das, “Shallow Ambient Noise Variability due to Distant Shipping Noise and Tideâ€, Elsevier, Applied Acoustics, Vol. 72 (2011), pp: 660–664.

R.K. Shastri, Y.V. Joshi, and A. Das, “Time Frequency Analysis of Underwater Ambient Noise in Tropical Littoral Watersâ€, IEEE OCEANSan Diego, 23-27 September 2013.

J.R. Short, “High-Frequency Ambient Noise and Its Impact on Underwater Tracking Rangesâ€, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 2, April 2005.

G.B. Deane and M.J. Buckingham, “Vertical Coherence of Ambient Noise in Shallow Water Overlying a Fluid Seabedâ€, J. Acoustic Society of America, December 1997, Vol.102, No. 6, pp: 3413-3424.

A.E. Isaev, Chen Yi, A.N. Mateev, and Ping Zihong, “COONET.AUV.W-S1 supplementary comparison of free-field hydrophone calibration in the Frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHzâ€, Metrologia, Vol. 52, 2015, doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/52/1A/09001.

D. Tom Dakin, Jeff Bosma, John Dorocicz, and Nicolai Bailly, “Calibrating Low Frequency Digital Hydrophonesâ€, International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustics (UA2013), Corfu, Greece, 23-26 June, 2013.

S.H. Cha, “Taxonomy of Nominal Type Histogram Distance Measuresâ€, American Conference on applied Mathematics (Math’08), Harvard, Massachusetts, USA, March 24-26, 2008.

How to Cite
Santoso, T. B. (2016). Ambient Noise Characterization of Shallow Water Environment. EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology, 3(2), 77-87.