The Multipath Influence in Real-Time Kinematic of GNSS Observations at Different Antenna Heights
Multipath is a dominant error source in Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) applications that reduces the position, time and velocity accuracy. Mitigation of such errors can be achieved by better signal processing and antenna design. This paper attempts to examine the different height of RTK system antenna with regards to the multipath error. The results obtained in this work show height significantly change of multipath in pseudo range (MP1) and multipath in the carrier phase (MP2). Different antenna height does not give the same multipath error result in the tests that we have conducted in this work. The optimal height of the antenna was achieved as two meters in order to obtain a minimum multipath error for MP1 and MP2. At the end of this work, we experimentally proved that there is an inverse relationship between the height of the antenna and multipath with RTK algorithm.
Z. Tongyu, X. Aihua, and S. Rui, “Evaluation on User Range Error and Global Positioning Accuracy for GPS / BDS Navigation System,” IEEE Chinese Guidance, Navigation and Control Conferenceno. 2, pp. 1–6, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CGNCC.2014.7007297
D. M. Franco-patiño, G. Seco-granados, F. Dovis, P. Torino, and C. Duca, “Signal Quality Checks For Multipath Detection in GNSS,”International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS). doi:10.1109/icl-gnss,IEEE2013.
B. M. Hannah, “Modelling and Simulation of GPS Multipath Propagation GPS Multipath Propagation.”Ph.D. Thesis, QueenslandUniversity of Technology, Australia, 2001.
S. Michael and Braasch, M. S. and Van Graas, F., “Guidance accuracy considerations for realtimeGPSinterferometry,” ION GPS-91; Proceedings of the 4th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1991, pp. 11-13.
C. Mekik and O. Can, “Multipath Effects in RTK GPS and A Case Study,” J. Aeronaut. Astronaut. Aviat., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 231–240, 2009.
G. Yan and L. Qing, “Closely Spaced Multipath Mitigation in GNSS Receiver Based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation,” IEEE2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/WCSP.2013.6677035
W. Jun, L. Shu, A. Denisov, and L. Lu, “A High Gain Printed Antenna with Parabolic Metal Grid Reflector Based on SIW Technology,” 2017 IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp. Proc., vol. 2017-Janua, pp. 523–524, 2017.
Y Kok-Yong Seng, I. Nestorov,and P. Vicini “Estimation, Fuzzy Least Squares for Identification of Individual Pharmacokinetic Parameters,” 2018 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2009.2029083
Y. Kamatham, “Estimation, analysis and prediction of multipath error for static GNSS applications,” 2018 Conf. Signal Process. Commun. Eng. Syst. SPACES 2018, vol. 2018-Janua, pp. 62–65, 2018.
P. Defraigne and C. Bruyninx,“On the link between GPS pseudorange noise and day- boundary discontinuities in geodetic time transfer solutions,”GPS Solution ,DOI 10.1007/s10291-007-0054-z, July 2017.
M. S. Peprah and I. O. Mensah, “Performance Evaluation of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Total Least Square (TLS) in Adjusting Field Data: An Empirical Study on a DGPS Data,” South African Journal of Geomatics, Vol. 6. No. 1, April 2017 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/sajg.v6i1.5
S. Tay and J. Marais, “Weighting models for GPS Pseudorange observations for land transportation in urban canyons,” 6th European Workshop on GNSS Signals and Signal Processing,December 2013.
M. R. Azarbad, M. R. Mosavi, “A new method to mitigate multipath error in single-frequency GPS receiver with wavelet transform,” GPS Solutions,DOI 10.1007/s10291-013-0320-1,Vol. 18. No. 2, April 2014.
}T. T. Thai, E. Lochin, J. Lacan, "Online multipath convolutional coding for real-time transmission", Proc. IEEE Int. Packet Video Workshop (PV), pp. 41-46, May 2012.
Copyright (c) 2019 EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright to this article is transferred to Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya(PENS) if and when the article is accepted for publication. The undersigned hereby transfers any and all rights in and to the paper including without limitation all copyrights to PENS. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. The copyright transfer form can be downloaded here .
The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. This agreement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who have obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable. After submission of this agreement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted.
Plagiarism screening will be conducted by EMITTER Journal Editorial Board using iThenticate Plagiarism Checker and CrossCheck plagiarism screening service. Author should download and signing declaration of plagiarism form here and resubmit it with copyright transfer form via online submission.