Tooth Color Detection Using PCA and KNN Classifier Algorithm Based on Color Moment
AbstractMatching the suitable color for tooth reconstruction is an important step that can make difficulties for the dentists due to the subjective factorsÂ of color selection. Accurate color matching system is mainly result based on images analyzing and processing techniques of recognition system. Â This system consist of three parts, which are data collection from digital teeth color images, data preparation for taking color analysis technique and extracting the features, and data classification involve feature selection for reducing the features number of this system. The teeth images which is used in this research are 16 types of teeth that are taken from RSGM UNAIR SURABAYA. Feature extraction is taken by the characteristics of the RGB, HSV and LAB based on the color moment calculation such as mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis parameter. Due to many formed features from each color space, it is required addition method for reducing the number of features by choosing the essential information like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. Combining the PCA feature selection technique to the clasification process using K Nearest Neighbour (KNN) classifierÂ algorithm can be improved the accuracy performance of this system. On the experiment result, it showed that only usingÂ KNN classifier achieve accuracy percentage up to 97.5 % in learning process and 92.5 % in testing process while combining PCA with KNN classifier can reduce the 36 features to the 26 features which can improve the accuracy percentage up to 98.54 % in learning process and Â 93.12% in testing process. Adding PCA as the feature selection method can be improved the accuracy performance of this color matching system with little number of features.Â
W.K. Tam, H.J. Lee, Dental Shade Matching Using Digital Camera, The Journal of Dentistry Elsevier, pp. e3-e10, June 2012.
Stephen J. Chu, Richard D. T., and Rade D. Paravina, Dental Color Matching Instruments and Systems (Review of Clinical and Research Aspects), Journal of Dentistry Elsevier, pp. e2-e16, July 2010.
S. Mangijao Singh, K. Hemachandran, Image Retrieval Based on The Combination of Color Histogram and Color Moment, International Jounal of Computer Applications, vol. 58, No.3, November 2012.
Shuli Wang, Weiting Wang, and Fan Wu, A Computer-Aided Analysis on Dental Prosthesis Shade Matching, 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI), pp. 1950-1954, 2011.
Dan S., Marius D. P., Marius D. S., Vladimir B., Tudor C., and Simona B., A Software Application to Detect Dental Color, Applied Medical Informatics Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp: 31-38, 2015.
Hicham R., Abdelmajid E., and Farid B., Classification and Recognition of Dental Images Using Decisional Tree, 13th International Conference Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization(CgiV), pp. 390-393, April 2016.
Fengxi Song, Zhongwei Guo, Dayong Mei, Feature Selection Using Principal Component Analysis, International Conference on System Science, Engineering Design and Manufacturing Informatization(ICSEM), pp. 27-30, November 2010.
Zena M. Hira and Duncan F. Gillies, A Review of Feature Selection and Feature Extraction Methods Applied on Microarray Data, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Bioinformatics, vol. 2015, 13 pages, 18 May 2015.
Fatma Zohra C., Noureddine C., and Amar D., Face Recognition System Using Skin Detection in RGB and YcbCr Color Space, 2nd World Symposium of Web Applications and Networking (WSWAN), 21-23 March 2015.
B. Dhivakar, C. Sridevi S. Selvakumar and P.Guhan, Face Detection and Recognition Using Skin Color, 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication and Networking (ICSCN), 2015.
Iwan Syarif, Feature Selection on Network Intrusion Data Using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, EMITTER International Jounal of Engineering Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2 December 2016.
Hasan Suat G., Bulent P., Dogan C., Sila M.,G., and Volkan A., Shade Matching Performance of Normal and Color Vision-Deficient Dental Professionals with Standard Daylight and Tungsten Illuminats, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, vol. 103, Issue 3, pp. 139-147, March 2010
S. Mangjiao Singh, K. Hemachandran, Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Color Moment and Gabor Texture Feature, IJCSI Issues, Vol.9, No.1, September 2012.
Riyanto Sigit, Achmad Basuki, Nana Ramadijanti, Dadet Pramadihanto, Step By Step Pengolahan Citra Digital, 2014
Jihong Liu, Na Zhao, Runnan H., Study of Color Matching System for Porcelain Teeth, ICMIPE, 19-20 October 2013.
Hongtan Sun, K-Nearest Neighbour and SVM Classifier with Feature extraction and Feature Selection, final project for CSCI 6967 : Foundation of Data Sciences, May 11, 2015.
Alex Norko, Simple Image Classification Using Principal Component Analysis, GMU Volgenau School of Engineering USA, December 9, 2015.
Copyright (c) 2017 EMITTER International Journal of Engineering Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright to this article is transferred to Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya(PENS) if and when the article is accepted for publication. The undersigned hereby transfers any and all rights in and to the paper including without limitation all copyrights to PENS. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required. The undersigned represents that he/she has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. The copyright transfer form can be downloaded here .
The corresponding author signs for and accepts responsibility for releasing this material on behalf of any and all co-authors. This agreement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who have obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable. After submission of this agreement signed by the corresponding author, changes of authorship or in the order of the authors listed will not be accepted.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions
- Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the Work.
- Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the work or derivative works for the author’s personal use or company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice of Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya (PENS) publisher are indicated.
- Authors are allowed to use and reuse their articles under the same CC-BY-NC-SA license as third parties.
- Third-parties are allowed to share and adapt the publication work for all non-commercial purposes and if they remix, transform, or build upon the material, they must distribute under the same license as the original.
Plagiarism screening will be conducted by EMITTER Journal Editorial Board using iThenticate Plagiarism Checker and CrossCheck plagiarism screening service. The author should download and sign the declaration of plagiarism form here and resubmit it with the copyright transfer form via online submission.